On the 50th anniversary of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in socialist China
The history of the Chinese revolution since liberation shows that every struggle for advancement in the economic base was preceded and succeeded by struggles in the superstructure, and the struggle in the superstructure in turn stimulated further development of the economic base. The political victory of the democratic revolution in 1949 was succeeded by a revolution in the ownership of means of production, i.e., socialist industrialisation and land reform movement of 1949-1952. This was consolidated by a struggle in the ideological sphere – the ‘three-antis and five-antis’ movement and the antiKao anti-Jao struggle of 1953-55. This in turn prepared the ground for the next big step in the development of the economic base – the movement for the collectivisation of agriculture in 1955-56. It was followed by another ideological struggle – the ‘Hundred Flowers’ movement and the ‘anti-rightist movement’ of 1957. This movement in the superstructure not only consolidated the collectivization movement but also laid the ground for a leap in socialist industrialisation and socialist transformation of agriculture, handicrafts and commerce – the Great Leap Forward and people’s commune movement of 1958-59. This tremendous development in the economic base was consolidated by a fresh ideological struggle that led to the repudiation of P’eng Te-huai’s revisionist line in 1959 and the launching of the Socialist Education Movement in 1963, which was the immediate precursor of GPCR. This zigzag pattern of class struggle – transforming the superstructure to develop the forces and relations of production, and basing on the development in the forces and relations of production to further revolutionise the superstructure – in this way advancing through a series of nformed to the principles of Marxism and the laws of class struggle under socialism.